COVID Trace: Helping Reduce the Spread of COVID-19 in Today's New Normal
As countries start to reopen, how can we use technology to safeguard communities that will be returning to mass public transit, work, and public spaces?
An idea that stemmed from a virtual meetup hackathon and evolved into a refined semi-finalist contact alert iOS app, COVID Trace holistically limits the spread of the COVID-19 through contact tracing, while also informing the public about the changing environment around them.
Over the course of 5 weeks, I worked with two designers from the original meetup team and two mobile developers to revamp our original concept into a contact alert app notifying individuals of a contact risk, incorporating a thermal risk map, and a symptom tracking calendar.
NEURON DESIGN CHALLENGE
Christopher Sayas, Faezeh Taghva, Ivy Ho, Shreya Gupta, & Me!
HCL MICROSOFT HACKATHON REDESIGN
Designers: Ivy Ho, Shreya Gupta, & Me!
Developers: Ava Shah, Keya Shah
Prompt: To help control or limit the spread of the COVID-19 virus while also informing the public about the changing risks around them.
Our goals were to:
1. Acknowledge threat that this virus poses a risk to human life.
2. Short response time to communicate quickly and clearly using the right words at the appropriate time without complicating the message.
3. Issue directions while amplifying the information put out by CDC, WHO, local authorities, and other reputable sources.
4. Promote testing centers. Countries that have high levels of contact tracing and testing have been able to successfully slow down the spread of the virus.
What I Did
Throughout the whole process, my team members and I took on a collaborative approach contributing and offering feedback.
My roles included participating in user research, taking lead on the information architecture, executing the UI Design, and completing the final clickable prototype.
Let's start at the beginning.
As a team, we unanimously agreed on the goal of recovery and the return to normalcy.
To identify and understand user pain points, concerns about the technology with COVID, and privacy laws, we jumped right into research. We based our design decisions on information presented in these articles:
There were three key insights to consider in order to create a safe and effective solution that can restore the users faith in returning to their new normal.
Concerns for the Users
Lack of Privacy- Big tech companies have not been transparent about whether user data and personal information collected via the application will be misused or erased. Users do not want to share their personal data.
Users Are Skeptical of Efficacy- 60% of Americans do not think this tracing application will work to limit the spread.
How might we create trust and help users feel comfortable and compelled to share their test results?
Technical Limitations & Concerns
False Positives- Even though the user has not been exposed, they will get the notification on their phone that they were in contact with the virus.
False Negatives- Since not everyone will be registered, someone who has tested positive but does not have the application will not prompt an alert even if the user was exposed.
Inadequate Technology- Bluetooth signals may not be strong enough to detect proximity.
How might we work around technological inefficiencies?
False Sense of Security- Users will not be as careful.
Low Participation- 60% of the American population needs to have the app, but only 40% expressed interest.
Lack of Testing- Testing has a direct correlation to data; there will not be enough data if there are not enough tests.
How might we gain the trust of users to participate and share useful data?
The key takeaway was that the Pew Research Study that found that 68% of Americans worry restrictions are easing too quickly and do not feel safe resuming their normal activities.
User Case Scenarios
We defined two relatable user case scenarios to help us define and address potential situations in which users may find themselves in their everyday routines to better understand what users may feel, think, and need.
Scenario 1: At the grocery store shopping for my family’s weekly essentials. My app notifies me that I have come within six feet of someone that is confirmed to have the novel coronavirus.
What should I do?
How do I avoid causing panic?
How can I anticipate what people around me will do?
How do I find out protocols in that area?
What should I be aware of?
How can I avoid certain areas?
Scenario 2: Traveling for my daily commute but need gas. I actively follow social distancing protocol, wear a mask, and use hand sanitizer after each fill up. Today I find myself in an unfamiliar area in need of gas.
In order to gain the trust of users to use technology to safeguard communities, our product will notify users of contact risk as countries start to reopen. We will know if our product works, when we see an increase in users and lower infection rates.
Features: Resources, Reporting & Thermal MapImpt Effort
A Minimum Viable Product (MVP) matrix helped prioritize app features which included features we felt best fulfilled the success criteria, required the lowest effort given the time constraints, and had the highest impact for the user.
To make the app dynamic understanding users would be going out as we return to a sense of normalcy, a thermal map indicating high-risk areas was at the top of our list. It was also discussed to include features such as: positive-contact notifications, accessible resources, and next steps after contact.
Designing with these Assumptions
We began to design with the following assumptions in mind:
The user always has their phone with them.
At least 60% of the population has downloaded this application, making the data more accurate.
The user chooses to run the application in the background so that it can detect the BlueTooth signals of users who have tested positive.
During the hour and a half allotted time, we designed a solution within the constraints of the design challenge that accomplished the following:
Designed with a holistic approach to the design challenge with essential and key information
Simplified language and condensed resources to promote inclusivity, amplify the voices of the CDC, WHO, and local governments
‘Going Somewhere?’ feature proactively incorporated features that would be utilized as users begin to return to a “normal” schedule that includes more movement
Simple call to actions minimized friction for the users
User opens app and can access all app features from home screen
User is notified of COVID-19 Contact alert and is given next steps
Various resources and aides are available. Heat map is also accessible
User plugs in address or desired location to view risk in that area
New Ideas & Goals
Following the Hackathon, two other designer teammates and I agreed to push our app idea and create a higher fidelity prototype. We discussed new goals and iterated on feedback recieved from the Hackathon to develop further.
Areas for Development
Detail the closest testing facilities since we are encouraging this as a next step.
Thermal Map feature. How exactly will this work?
We set new goals of:
easing the overall user experience
developing stronger branding
incorporating high impact product features
First Things First:
Outlining and setting a basic blueprint of the structure of the app helped keep us organized and visually see how the app would function for users.
The features were established, the challenge was to shuffle them around to make sense.
User Flow + Steps
The user flow needed to be as seamless and straight-forward as possible to avoid any unnecessary confusion for the user.
The aim was to have a clear step-by-step journey.
Alert the user that they have been in contact with someone who has tested positive
Lead the user to the next steps
Record the user's health status
Report user's symptoms
Check the risk of public areas using the live-time density of population byways of a thermal map, helping users make decisions on their movement.
I challenged myself to spearhead the direction of the app's visual identity. Developing a style guide, I chose colors that were calm and cool-toned to reflect a tranquil nature. The graphics which included an array of icons and illustrations needed to be clear and recognizable, with a subtle whim. I used curves, blobs, and gradients to achieve this.
Over 2 weeks and a round of remote usability tests with 5 users, we created our final prototype 2.0. This prototype encompasses all the features we thought would have a high impact for the user while addressing the initial design challenge.
I prototyped the entire app ensuring smooth transitions and a solid end product.
By anonymously reporting this information to the co-habitants, we are maintaining HIPAA compliance and improving privacy protection measures for the user—the main concern put forth in our initial research. We also wanted to offer a sense of security by offering help and guidance. The co-habitants can be set and changed in the settings.
By clearly outlining the steps after contact, we are promoting best practices to reduce the spread. By creating a clear direction, we hope to help the user avoid panic. We have curated a list of resources, including a live chat and non-emergency phone number, to answer any questions with reliable information.
Our home screen amplifies local and global resources that provide reliable information. This page also highlighted two main features from our original MVP to slow the spread of COVID-19: the density heat map and reporting a positive diagnosis. These are features that both users and judges expressed the most interest in and it accomplished the goal of the design challenge.
Report Test Results or Contact
In addition to the heat map, this self-report tool is also available as a call-to-action. By emphasizing that this is anonymous, we hope the user feels trust in reporting their symptoms and diagnosis. We have included the option “No” but feeling symptoms and being “in contact with someone who has tested positive” to offset the testing capacity of the nation, a concern that medical professionals have put forth. This will allow us to capture more potential infections that may have gone undiagnosed. The application can then let people know when they have been in close proximity to someone who may have COVID-19 so that they can be aware of their own health and symptoms.
This feature allows the user to make informed decisions by using population density as an indication of risk for exposure. As the country begins to reopen, this map will provide live-time information on how crowded a place is, similar to thermal maps. This is especially useful for our immunocompromised users who need to avoid high-risk situations. Since COVID-19 testing is key to slowing down the spread and a component of the judges’ criteria, we also added it as a filter on the map in an effort to encourage users to visit these centers.
Calendar of Symptoms
This feature allows the user to track their symptoms and dates for self-isolation. It further promotes best practices and locally stores a history of symptoms in case the user needs to check in with a doctor. Given the importance of timely treatment with this virus, this will make the users keep their health status in mind and create a timeline of events for medical professionals.
Product Demo: GitHub
Over the course of three weeks, the mobile developers took our designs and made them tangible. They were able to work on the self-report tool, calendar, and beginnings of the thermal map feature doing numerous validation tests and staying mindful of limiting the number of new page instances.
Overall we all learned a lot through this collaborative venture such as understanding developer terminology and supplying them with enough information to build off of.
Lessons Learned + Next Steps
Collaboration & Time Management: Due to time limitations, it was a challenge to ensure everyone was in agreement with design decisions. Spending a few minutes outlining an agenda would've been helpful to stay on track.
Incentives: How might we motivate users to use our app? Keep users' interest? I would like to look into incentives or potentially gamifing the app to keep users' interests high.
More Research: If we continued to develop this app, I would like to conduct an extensive competitive analysis to see what other apps and services are available and popular to understand what these services are doing to develop a sense of trust where the users are willing to share their private information.